Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Concept to Challenge

1957 to Mid-1961
Forging a National Space Policy
The Starting
The Goett Committee
Focusing the Aim
Priming the Pipeline
The Feasibility Studies
Portents for Apollo
The Challenge

Chapter 2: Project Planning and Contracting

May through December 1961
Committees at Work
Spacecraft Development Decision
Astronavigation - The First Apollo Contract
Contracting for the Command Module
Influences on Booster Determination
Help from the Department of Defense
Choice of Facilities
The Launch Vehicle: Question and Decision

Chapter 3: Contending Modes

1959 to Mid-1962
Proposals: Before and after May 1961
LOR Gains a NASA Adherent
Early Reaction to LOR
Analysis of LOR
Settling the Mode Issue
Casting the Die

Chapter 4: Matching Modules and Missions

The Team and the Tools
Preliminary Designs for the Lunar Lander
Pressures by PSAC
Fitting the Lunar Module into Apollo
NASA Adjustments for Apollo
NASA-Grumman Negotiations
End of a Phase

Chapter 5: Command Module and Program Changes

The Headquarters Role
Commmand Module: Problems and Progress

Chapter 6: Lunar Module

External Design
Tailoring the Cockpit
Hatches and Landing Gear
Engines, Large and Small
Environment and Electricity
The "Sub-Prime" and the Radar Problem
Guidance and Navigation
Mockup Reviews
The Lunar Module and the Apollo Program

Chapter 7: Searching for Order

Program Direction and the Command Module
Lunar Module Refinement
The LEM Test Program: A Pacing Item
The Manned Factor
Portents for Operations
The Course and the Future

Chapter 8: Moving Toward Operations

Qualifying Missions
Troubles and Troubleshooters
Lunar Module
Plans and Progress in Space Flight
The Astronauts and the Gemini Experience
Preparations for the First Manned Apollo Mission

Chapter 9: Tragedy and Recovery

Stalked by the Spectre
The Investigation
The Slow Recovery
Apollo 4 and Saturn V

Chapter 10: Race with the Decade

1968: First Half
Worries and Watchdogs
Apollo 5: The Lunar Module's Debut
The LM: Some Questions, Some Answers
Apollo 6: Saturn V's Shaky Dress Rehearsal
Pogo and Other Problems
The Outlook

Chapter 11: Tastes of Triumph

1968: Second Half
Proposal for a Lunar-Orbit Mission
Selecting and Training Crews
Apollo 7: The Magnificent Flying Machine
The Apollo 8 Decision
Apollo 8: The First Lunar Voyage

Chapter 12: The Trailblazers

1969: First Half
Schedules and Lingering Worries
A Double Workload
The Mission and the Men
Apollo 9: Earth Orbital Trials
Setting the Stage
Apollo 10: The Dress Rehearsal

Chapter 13: To Land on the Moon

1960-July 1969
Some Special Consideration
Training Mankind's Representatives
Affairs for the Public
Down to the Wire

Chapter 14: Trip to Tranquility

1969: July
The Outward Voyage
In Lunar Orbit
The First Landing
On the Surface
Return from Tranquility

Appendix A: Manned Spacecraft Center Site Selection Prodedure
Appendix B: Astronaut Assignments
Appendix C: Apollo Flight Program
Appendix D: Apollo 11 Experiments
Appendix E: Apollo 11 Lunar Samples
Appendix F: Major Spacecraft Component Manufacturers
Appendix G: Apollo Program Responsibilities of the Manned Space Centers
Appendix H: Funding - As of 30 June 1969